safety

India, the country of road accidents

Do you know? India has the highest number of road accidents in the world.

Every hour, 40 people under the age of 25 die in road accidents around the globe.

India stands out miserably in the latest World Health Organisation’s (WHO) “Global Road Safety Report-2015” with an estimated 2,07,551 deaths on roads and around 4.5 lacs crashes. That is actually much more than the number of people killed in all our wars put together.
In 2015, one person dies every 4 minutes in roads accidents in India, according to NGO ‘Indians for Road Safety’.
People left injured were also the highest levels since the recording in India with 4.8 lacs injured people, some of them even faced permanent disability.
According to the WHO, this is the second most important cause of death for 5 to 29 year old ones after is road accident. A 16-year-old has 3 times the crash risk of an 18-year-old and 7 times the crash risk of a 25-year-old.

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“In New Delhi, the capital of India, frequency of traffic collisions is 40 times higher than the rate of London, the capital of the United Kingdom.”

Among 53 mega cities of India, capital city Delhi itself registered the highest number of fatalities Delhi with 2,199. That is like 6 lives end on Delhi’s roads everyday!
Chennai second recorded 1,046 such deaths
Bhopal ranked third with 1,015
Jaipur fourth with 844 lost lives

fatboyke (Luc)Photo URL    : http://www.flickr.com/photos/fatboyke/2668411239/

1. Safety Education & Good Roads:
One should know and follow traffic rules obediently. Uneducated people don’t know about the rules and the educated people ignores them. Preference to pedestrians and children should be first. As per Indian standards, left side should be chosen.
Caution signs should be placed. Government should provide good fund and management for the maintenance of road. Generous luminescence in the dark, street lights in working condition. Cross roads and speed breakers should be made in risky areas.

2. Safety Measurements:
Cars should be driven with seat belts as they protect body parts including brain and spinal cord. It is estimated 15,000 lives are saved each year in USA with the help of wearing seat belts.
Bikes should be only allowed on the roads if the person is wearing a well certified helmet. Youngsters avoid wearing to look cool and adventurous. End up buried under the grave. Helmet saves up to about 50% of cranial injuries.
Government should favor compulsory cars with airbags, ABS (anti-breaking system), fog lamps and rear defogger glasses.
There should be rule of not allowing kids to the age of 15 to be allowed to sit even in co-passenger seat with driver. It is followed in some countries but not in India.

3. Enforcement of Laws:
License should be strictly given after a road test under an official and it should be retested after a period of 5 years at least for renewal. Speed limit, medical fitness tests, compulsory seat belt and helmet rule should be applied. 
There should be strict laws against
a) bad driving,
b) taking and texting on mobile phones,
c) crossing the speed limit,
d) roadside alcohol and drugs intake checkup,
e) illegal street racing, and
f) under-age driving (below 18)

4. Preventive Care with Medical & Rehabilitation Facilities
The person who faced minor or major accident should be provided with ambulance to the nearest hospital for the management of any trauma. Hospital should provide fully specialized Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and Intensive Critical Care Unit (ICCU) facilities can save the life of the person.
Other than that if the person get impairment or disability, he or she should be rehabilitated to avoid being a handicap person. This include medical, social, psychological and occupational rehabilitation.

5. Psychological factors should be avoided
One should not drive in any of these following conditions:
a) Lack of experience with driving a vehicle.
b) Trying to be adventurous and taking raking risks.
c) Impulsive behavior or mood.
d) Defective judgmental behavior.
e) Delay in decision taking.
f) Ability of poor perception.
g) Driving with family dysfunction.
h) Alcohol or any other drug addiction.

Dedicated to my cousin Ankit who lost his life last month on road accident. May the lord rest his soul in peace.

References: TOI, NDTV, Hindu, K.Park’s Preventive & Social Medicine

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This is how you can prevent breast cancer!

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Today breast cancer is one the most dangerous disease in women after skin and lung cancer  among women. Etiologically depends upon geographical location, genetically, oestrogen access. It is more common in urban areas of India and developed nations. It’s more often in left breast than the right and is bilateral in about 4% cases.

As per statistics development of invasive breast cancer is 12% over the course of her lifetime of US women. About 25% of all cancers among women and causes approximately 20% of all cancer deaths.

In 2015, an estimated 231,840 new cases of invasive breast cancer are expected to be diagnosed in women in the U.S., along with 60,290 new cases of non­invasive (in situ) breast cancer. Around 40,290 women will die from breast cancer.

Breast cancer is now the most common cancer in most cities in India, and 2nd most common in the rural areas. It is most common among post­menopausal women of 50­60 years of age. It is even possible to have development of breast cancer in men but it very rare for like 0.2% of cases.


source: breastcancerindia.net

For around 85% of breast cancers occur in women who have no family history of breast cancer. These occur due to genetic mutations that happen as a result of the aging process and life in general, rather than inherited mutation in genes.

There is no such way to prevent this breast cancer but sill there are few measurements that can lower the chances. It can be possible changing few risk factors that one can keep under it control by changing the lifestyle and diagnosing at earliest stage as possible.

1. Drink less or better avoid
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Alcohol is not only destroys you liver and kidneys. It is also associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. So it is better to limit the intake to no more than one drink a day, regardless of type of liquor.

2. Avoid smoking
Young woman is breaking a cigarette

Smoking is often associated to COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) and Lung Cancer. But according to scientific researches that long­term smoking also increase the risk of breast cancer in some women due to presence of carcinogens.

3. Maintain your weight and eat healthy
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Risk of breast cancer after menopause has been recorded higher in obese women. Increase your healthy lifestyle by fresh fruits and vegetables, eat lean protein and avoid processed food, carbs and fried meal. Choose vegetarian dishes over non­veg.

4. Stay physically active and strong
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According to research that increased physical activity, even when begun later in life, reduces the risk by about 10 to 30 percent. All it takes is moderate exercise like a 30­minute walk five days a week to get this protective effect. So it is better to stay fit, do workout, stay healthy and live healthy.

5. Breast feeding
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Good news! If you’re a mother and have a recent delivery of an angel. You will be secure from breast cancer for a year with breast feeding your child. It not only acts as nectar for the baby but also there is some natural ability to get cancer by rid of this. Higher risk in unmarried an nulliparous women than in married and multiparous women. But also some women with first childbirth at the late age of over 30 are in greater risk.

6. Avoid Hormone Therapy
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Long term use of OCP (oral contraceptive pills) has been suspected to predispose to breast cancer. Menopausal hormone therapy increases risk for breast cancer. If you must take hormones to manage menopausal symptoms, avoid those that contain progesterone and limit their use to less than three years. So avoid unless it has been prescribed by a doctor.

7. Have regular check­ups

If you are at high risk for breast cancer, such as having a particular gene like a BRCA gene, or have a strong family history or have had high­risk benign breast disease in the past, talk with your doctor about other options like mammography, MRI, xeroradiography, thermography, FNAC and ultrasound screenings.

Many of the times It is noticed that the patient comes at later stage of the cancer and it becomes quite difficult and less possibilities to cure it. It is always advisable to have regular check­ups in hospital. You need to follow­up and talk frankly this about to your doctor.

Sources:
http://www.cancer.gov/
https://www.fredhutch.org
https://breastcancerindia.net
Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease
Harsh Mohan ­ Textbook of Pathology